How the performance of a rotational energy scavenger can be explored using a simple representative model. Electrical energy is produced from an off-center mass attached to the shaft of a DC motor. The mass, geometry, motor and electrical parameters must be matched to the expected mechanical excitation. The generated electrical power is less than the extracted mechanical power primarily due to motor winding losses and viscous damping for the rotor. This example is based on Nunna, K. "Constructive interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control with applications", Imperial College London (2014). The model here is simplified in that the DC-DC converter is omitted.
Operation of a Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) on a Formula 1 car. The model permits the benefits to be explored. During braking, energy is stored in a lithium-ion battery and ultracapacitor combination. It is assumed that a maximum of 400KJ of energy is to be delivered in one lap at a maximum power of 60KW. Design parameters are the weight of the battery, ultracapacitor and motor-generator. If these parameters are all set to the very small value of 0.01kg, the lap time is 95.0 seconds, this corresponding to a car with no KERS. With default values set here, approximately 1/4 of a second is saved on the lap time when using any available electrical power when not braking. Applying KERS only to selected corners requires a larger ultracapacitor to show any significant benefit.
Create system-level model of a photovoltaic generator that can be used to simulate performance using historical irradiance data. Here the model is tested by varying the irradiance which approximates the effect of varying cloud cover. Power generation steps immediately following the irradiance change. Environmental temperature also varies during the test. The DC-AC converter efficiency is assumed to be a fixed 97 percent, this value having been determined from the ee_solar_converter example model.
Generate the power-voltage curve for a solar array. Understanding the power-voltage curve is important for inverter design. Ideally the solar array would always be operating at peak power given the irradiance level and panel temperature.
Model a solar panel using information from a manufacturer datasheet. The data is imported and used to generate current-voltage and power-voltage curves for the solar panel. The power-voltage curve is useful for designing an inverter because it helps to identify the peak power for a given irradiance level and panel cell temperature
Determine the efficiency of a single-stage solar converter. The model simulates one complete AC cycle for a specified level of solar irradiance and corresponding optimal DC voltage and AC RMS current. Using the example model ee_solar_characteristics, the optimal values have been determined as 342V DC and 20.05A AC for an irradiance of 1000W/m^2 and panel temperature of 20 degrees Celsius. Converter efficiency is determined in two independent ways. The first compares the ratio of AC power out to DC power in over one AC cycle. The second calculates losses by component by making use of Simscape™ logging. The small difference in calculated efficiency value is due to differences between trapezoidal integration used by the script and the greater accuracy achieved by the Simulink® variable-step solver.
An induction machine used as a wind turbine generator. The Simple Turbine block converts wind speed to turbine output power by a simple output power versus wind speed characteristic.
Script shows how you can linearize a Simscape™ Electrical™ model to support control system stability analysis and design. It uses example model ee_sm_governor_control_design.
Model a multi-domain power cogeneration system using Simscape™, Simscape
Electrical™, and Simscape
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