Symbol Synchronizer

Correct symbol timing clock skew

  • Library:
  • Communications Toolbox / Synchronization

Description

The Symbol Synchronizer block corrects symbol timing clock skew for PAM, PSK, QAM, or OQPSK modulation schemes between a single-carrier transmitter and receiver. For more information, see Symbol Synchronization Overview.

Note

The input signal operates on a sample rate basis, while the output signal operates on a symbol rate basis.

Ports

Input

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Input samples, specified as a scalar or column vector of a PAM, PSK, QAM, or OQPSK modulated single-carrier signal. This port in unnamed on the block.

Data Types: double | single
Complex Number Support: Yes

Output

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Output signal symbols, returned as a variable-size scalar or column vector that has the same data type as the input. For an input with dimensions of Nsamp-by-1, the output at Sym has dimensions of Nsym-by-1. Nsym is approximately equal to Nsamp divided by the Nsps. Nsps is equal to the Samples per symbol parameter. If the output exceeds the maximum output size of NsampNsps×1.1, it is truncated.

This port is unnamed when Normalized timing error output port is not selected.

Estimated timing error for each input sample, returned as a scalar or column vector with values in the range [0, 1]. The estimated timing error is normalized by the input sample time. Err has the same data type and size as the input signal.

Dependencies

To enable this port, select Normalized timing error output port.

Parameters

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Modulation type, specified as PAM/PSK/QAM, or OQPSK.

Type of timing error detector, specified as Zero-Crossing (decision-directed), Gardner (non-data-aided), Early-Late (non-data-aided), or Mueller-Muller (decision-directed). This parameter assigns the timing error detection scheme used in the synchronizer.

For more information, see Timing Error Detection (TED).

Samples per symbol, specified as a positive integer greater than 1.

Data Types: double

Damping factor of the loop filter, specified as a positive scalar. For more information, see Loop Filter.

Tunable: Yes

Data Types: double | single

Normalized bandwidth of the loop filter, specified as a positive scalar less than 1. The loop bandwidth is normalized by the sample rate of the input signal. For more information, see Loop Filter.

Note

To ensure that the symbol synchronizer locks, set the Normalized loop bandwidth parameter to a value less than 0.1.

Tunable: Yes

Data Types: double | single

Phase detector gain, specified as a positive scalar.

Tunable: Yes

Data Types: double | single

Select this parameter to output normalized timing error data at the output port Err.

Type of simulation to run, specified as Code generation or Interpreted execution.

  • Code generation –– Simulate the model by using generated C code. The first time you run a simulation, Simulink® generates C code for the block. The C code is reused for subsequent simulations unless the model changes. This option requires additional startup time, but the speed of the subsequent simulations is faster than Interpreted execution.

  • Interpreted execution –– Simulate the model by using the MATLAB® interpreter. This option requires less startup time than the Code generation method, but the speed of subsequent simulations is slower. In this mode, you can debug the source code of the block.

Block Characteristics

Data Types

double | single

Multidimensional Signals

no

Variable-Size Signals

yes

More About

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References

[1] Rice, Michael. Digital Communications: A Discrete-Time Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2008.

[2] Mengali, Umberto and Aldo N. D’Andrea. Synchronization Techniques for Digital Receivers. New York: Plenum Press, 1997.

Extended Capabilities

C/C++ Code Generation
Generate C and C++ code using Simulink® Coder™.

Introduced in R2015a