# grazingang

Grazing angle of surface target

Since R2021a

## Syntax

``grazAng = grazingang(H,R)``
``grazAng = grazingang(H,R,MODEL)``
``grazAng = grazingang(H,R,MODEL,Re)``
``grazAng = grazAng = grazingang(___,TargetHeight=TGTHT)``

## Description

example

````grazAng = grazingang(H,R)` returns the grazing angle for a sensor `H` meters above the surface, to surface targets `R` meters away. The computation assumes a curved earth model with an effective earth radius of approximately 4/3 times the actual earth radius.```
````grazAng = grazingang(H,R,MODEL)` also specifies the earth model used to compute the grazing angle. `MODEL` is either `"Flat"` or `"Curved"`.```
````grazAng = grazingang(H,R,MODEL,Re)` also specifies the effective earth radius. Effective earth radius applies to a curved earth model. When `MODEL` is `"Flat"`, the function ignores `Re`.```
````grazAng = grazAng = grazingang(___,TargetHeight=TGTHT)` also specifies the target height, `TGTHT` above the surface as either a scalar or a vector. If any combination of `ht`, `R`, and `TGTHT` are vectors, then the dimensions must be equal. `R` must be greater than or equal to the absolute value of the difference of `HT` and `TGTHT`.```

## Examples

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Determine the grazing angle (in degrees) of a path to a ground target located 1.0 km from a sensor. The sensor is mounted on a platform that is 300 m above the ground.

`grazAng = grazingang(300,1.0e3)`
```grazAng = 17.4544 ```

## Input Arguments

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Height of the sensor above the surface in meters, specified as a scalar or a vector. If both `H` and `R` are nonscalar, they must have the same dimensions.

Data Types: `double`

Distance from the sensor to the surface target in meters, specified as a scalar or a vector. If both `H` and `R` are nonscalar, they must have the same dimensions. `R` must be between `H` and the horizon range determined by `TGTHT`.

Data Types: `double`

Earth model, specified as one of `"Curved"` or `"Flat"`.

Data Types: `char` | `string`

Effective earth radius in meters, specified as a positive scalar. You can use `effearthradius` to compute the effective radius. The function provides a default value approximately 4/3 times the actual earth radius

Example: `6.4e6`

Data Types: `double`

Target height above surface in meters, specified as a scalar or vector. If any combination of `H`, `R`, and `TGTHT` are vectors, then their sizes must be equal. `R` must be greater than or equal to the absolute value of the difference of `H` and `TGTHT`. A surface target has a `TGTHT` of zero.

Data Types: `double`

## Output Arguments

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Grazing angle in degrees returned as a scalar or vector. If `grazAng` is a vector, it has the same dimensions as the nonscalar inputs to `grazingang`.

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### Grazing Angle

The grazing angle is the angle between a line from the sensor to a surface target, and a tangent to the earth at the site of that target.

For the curved earth model with an effective earth radius of Re, the grazing angle is:

`${\mathrm{sin}}^{-1}\left(\frac{{H}^{2}+2H{R}_{e}-{R}^{2}}{2R{R}_{e}}\right)$`

For the flat earth model, the grazing angle is:

`${\mathrm{sin}}^{-1}\left(\frac{H}{R}\right)$`

## References

[1] Long, Maurice W. Radar Reflectivity of Land and Sea, 3rd Ed. Boston: Artech House, 2001.

[2] Ward, J. "Space-Time Adaptive Processing for Airborne Radar Data Systems." Technical Report 1015, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, December 1994.

## Version History

Introduced in R2021a