# fitlda

Fit latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model

## Description

A latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model is a topic model which discovers underlying topics in a collection of documents and infers word probabilities in topics. If the model was fit using a bag-of-n-grams model, then the software treats the n-grams as individual words.

specifies additional options using one or more name-value pair arguments.`mdl`

= fitlda(___,`Name,Value`

)

## Examples

### Fit LDA Model

To reproduce the results in this example, set `rng`

to `'default'`

.

`rng('default')`

Load the example data. The file `sonnetsPreprocessed.txt`

contains preprocessed versions of Shakespeare's sonnets. The file contains one sonnet per line, with words separated by a space. Extract the text from `sonnetsPreprocessed.txt`

, split the text into documents at newline characters, and then tokenize the documents.

```
filename = "sonnetsPreprocessed.txt";
str = extractFileText(filename);
textData = split(str,newline);
documents = tokenizedDocument(textData);
```

Create a bag-of-words model using `bagOfWords`

.

bag = bagOfWords(documents)

bag = bagOfWords with properties: Counts: [154×3092 double] Vocabulary: ["fairest" "creatures" "desire" "increase" "thereby" "beautys" "rose" "might" "never" "die" "riper" "time" "decease" "tender" "heir" "bear" "memory" "thou" "contracted" … ] NumWords: 3092 NumDocuments: 154

Fit an LDA model with four topics.

numTopics = 4; mdl = fitlda(bag,numTopics)

Initial topic assignments sampled in 0.263378 seconds. ===================================================================================== | Iteration | Time per | Relative | Training | Topic | Topic | | | iteration | change in | perplexity | concentration | concentration | | | (seconds) | log(L) | | | iterations | ===================================================================================== | 0 | 0.17 | | 1.215e+03 | 1.000 | 0 | | 1 | 0.02 | 1.0482e-02 | 1.128e+03 | 1.000 | 0 | | 2 | 0.02 | 1.7190e-03 | 1.115e+03 | 1.000 | 0 | | 3 | 0.01 | 4.3796e-04 | 1.118e+03 | 1.000 | 0 | | 4 | 0.01 | 9.4193e-04 | 1.111e+03 | 1.000 | 0 | | 5 | 0.01 | 3.7079e-04 | 1.108e+03 | 1.000 | 0 | | 6 | 0.01 | 9.5777e-05 | 1.107e+03 | 1.000 | 0 | =====================================================================================

mdl = ldaModel with properties: NumTopics: 4 WordConcentration: 1 TopicConcentration: 1 CorpusTopicProbabilities: [0.2500 0.2500 0.2500 0.2500] DocumentTopicProbabilities: [154×4 double] TopicWordProbabilities: [3092×4 double] Vocabulary: ["fairest" "creatures" "desire" "increase" "thereby" "beautys" "rose" "might" "never" "die" "riper" "time" "decease" "tender" "heir" "bear" "memory" "thou" … ] TopicOrder: 'initial-fit-probability' FitInfo: [1×1 struct]

Visualize the topics using word clouds.

figure for topicIdx = 1:4 subplot(2,2,topicIdx) wordcloud(mdl,topicIdx); title("Topic: " + topicIdx) end

### Fit LDA Model to Word Count Matrix

Fit an LDA model to a collection of documents represented by a word count matrix.

To reproduce the results of this example, set `rng`

to `'default'`

.

`rng('default')`

Load the example data. `sonnetsCounts.mat`

contains a matrix of word counts and a corresponding vocabulary of preprocessed versions of Shakespeare's sonnets. The value `counts(i,j)`

corresponds to the number of times the `j`

th word of the vocabulary appears in the `i`

th document.

```
load sonnetsCounts.mat
size(counts)
```

`ans = `*1×2*
154 3092

Fit an LDA model with 7 topics. To suppress the verbose output, set `'Verbose'`

to 0.

```
numTopics = 7;
mdl = fitlda(counts,numTopics,'Verbose',0);
```

Visualize multiple topic mixtures using stacked bar charts. Visualize the topic mixtures of the first three input documents.

topicMixtures = transform(mdl,counts(1:3,:)); figure barh(topicMixtures,'stacked') xlim([0 1]) title("Topic Mixtures") xlabel("Topic Probability") ylabel("Document") legend("Topic "+ string(1:numTopics),'Location','northeastoutside')

### Predict Top LDA Topics of Documents

To reproduce the results in this example, set `rng`

to `'default'`

.

`rng('default')`

Load the example data. The file `sonnetsPreprocessed.txt`

contains preprocessed versions of Shakespeare's sonnets. The file contains one sonnet per line, with words separated by a space. Extract the text from `sonnetsPreprocessed.txt`

, split the text into documents at newline characters, and then tokenize the documents.

```
filename = "sonnetsPreprocessed.txt";
str = extractFileText(filename);
textData = split(str,newline);
documents = tokenizedDocument(textData);
```

Create a bag-of-words model using `bagOfWords`

.

bag = bagOfWords(documents)

bag = bagOfWords with properties: Counts: [154×3092 double] Vocabulary: ["fairest" "creatures" "desire" "increase" "thereby" "beautys" "rose" "might" "never" "die" "riper" "time" "decease" "tender" "heir" "bear" "memory" "thou" "contracted" … ] NumWords: 3092 NumDocuments: 154

Fit an LDA model with 20 topics.

numTopics = 20; mdl = fitlda(bag,numTopics)

Initial topic assignments sampled in 0.513255 seconds. ===================================================================================== | Iteration | Time per | Relative | Training | Topic | Topic | | | iteration | change in | perplexity | concentration | concentration | | | (seconds) | log(L) | | | iterations | ===================================================================================== | 0 | 0.04 | | 1.159e+03 | 5.000 | 0 | | 1 | 0.05 | 5.4884e-02 | 8.028e+02 | 5.000 | 0 | | 2 | 0.04 | 4.7400e-03 | 7.778e+02 | 5.000 | 0 | | 3 | 0.04 | 3.4597e-03 | 7.602e+02 | 5.000 | 0 | | 4 | 0.03 | 3.4662e-03 | 7.430e+02 | 5.000 | 0 | | 5 | 0.03 | 2.9259e-03 | 7.288e+02 | 5.000 | 0 | | 6 | 0.03 | 6.4180e-05 | 7.291e+02 | 5.000 | 0 | =====================================================================================

mdl = ldaModel with properties: NumTopics: 20 WordConcentration: 1 TopicConcentration: 5 CorpusTopicProbabilities: [0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500 0.0500] DocumentTopicProbabilities: [154×20 double] TopicWordProbabilities: [3092×20 double] Vocabulary: ["fairest" "creatures" "desire" "increase" "thereby" "beautys" "rose" "might" "never" "die" "riper" "time" "decease" "tender" "heir" "bear" "memory" "thou" … ] TopicOrder: 'initial-fit-probability' FitInfo: [1×1 struct]

Predict the top topics for an array of new documents.

newDocuments = tokenizedDocument([ "what's in a name? a rose by any other name would smell as sweet." "if music be the food of love, play on."]); topicIdx = predict(mdl,newDocuments)

`topicIdx = `*2×1*
19
8

Visualize the predicted topics using word clouds.

figure subplot(1,2,1) wordcloud(mdl,topicIdx(1)); title("Topic " + topicIdx(1)) subplot(1,2,2) wordcloud(mdl,topicIdx(2)); title("Topic " + topicIdx(2))

## Input Arguments

`bag`

— Input model

`bagOfWords`

object | `bagOfNgrams`

object

Input bag-of-words or bag-of-n-grams model, specified as a `bagOfWords`

object or a `bagOfNgrams`

object. If `bag`

is a
`bagOfNgrams`

object, then the function treats each n-gram as a
single word.

`numTopics`

— Number of topics

positive integer

Number of topics, specified as a positive integer. For an example showing how to choose the number of topics, see Choose Number of Topics for LDA Model.

**Example: **200

`counts`

— Frequency counts of words

matrix of nonnegative integers

Frequency counts of words, specified as a matrix of nonnegative integers. If you specify
`'DocumentsIn'`

to be `'rows'`

, then the value
`counts(i,j)`

corresponds to the number of times the
*j*th word of the vocabulary appears in the *i*th
document. Otherwise, the value `counts(i,j)`

corresponds to the number
of times the *i*th word of the vocabulary appears in the
*j*th document.

### Name-Value Arguments

Specify optional pairs of arguments as
`Name1=Value1,...,NameN=ValueN`

, where `Name`

is
the argument name and `Value`

is the corresponding value.
Name-value arguments must appear after other arguments, but the order of the
pairs does not matter.

*
Before R2021a, use commas to separate each name and value, and enclose*
`Name`

*in quotes.*

**Example: **`'Solver','avb'`

specifies to use approximate variational
Bayes as the solver.

**Solver Options**

`Solver`

— Solver for optimization

`'cgs'`

(default) | `'savb'`

| `'avb'`

| `'cvb0'`

Solver for optimization, specified as the comma-separated pair
consisting of `'Solver'`

and one of the following:

**Stochastic Solver**

**Batch Solvers**

`'cgs'`

– Use collapsed Gibbs sampling [3]. This solver can be more accurate at the cost of taking longer to run. The`resume`

function does not support models fitted with CGS.`'avb'`

– Use approximate variational Bayes [4]. This solver typically runs more quickly than collapsed Gibbs sampling and collapsed variational Bayes, but can be less accurate.`'cvb0'`

– Use collapsed variational Bayes, zeroth order [4] [5]. This solver can be more accurate than approximate variational Bayes at the cost of taking longer to run.

For an example showing how to compare solvers, see Compare LDA Solvers.

**Example: **`'Solver','savb'`

`LogLikelihoodTolerance`

— Relative tolerance on log-likelihood

`0.0001`

(default) | positive scalar

Relative tolerance on log-likelihood, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting
of `'LogLikelihoodTolerance'`

and a positive scalar. The optimization
terminates when this tolerance is reached.

**Example: **`'LogLikelihoodTolerance',0.001`

`FitTopicProbabilities`

— Option for fitting corpus topic probabilities

`true`

(default) | `false`

Option for fitting topic concentration, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'FitTopicConcentration'`

and either `true`

or `false`

.

The function fits the Dirichlet prior $$\alpha ={\alpha}_{0}\left(\begin{array}{cccc}{p}_{1}& {p}_{2}& \cdots & {p}_{K}\end{array}\right)$$ on the topic mixtures, where $${\alpha}_{0}$$ is the topic concentration and $${p}_{1},\dots ,{p}_{K}$$ are the corpus topic probabilities which sum to 1.

**Example: **`'FitTopicProbabilities',false`

**Data Types: **`logical`

`FitTopicConcentration`

— Option for fitting topic concentration

`true`

| `false`

Option for fitting topic concentration, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'FitTopicConcentration'`

and either `true`

or `false`

.

For batch the solvers `'cgs'`

,
`'avb'`

, and `'cvb0'`

, the default
for `FitTopicConcentration`

is `true`

.
For the stochastic solver `'savb'`

, the default is
`false`

.

The function fits the Dirichlet prior $$\alpha ={\alpha}_{0}\left(\begin{array}{cccc}{p}_{1}& {p}_{2}& \cdots & {p}_{K}\end{array}\right)$$ on the topic mixtures, where $${\alpha}_{0}$$ is the topic concentration and $${p}_{1},\dots ,{p}_{K}$$ are the corpus topic probabilities which sum to 1.

**Example: **`'FitTopicConcentration',false`

**Data Types: **`logical`

`InitialTopicConcentration`

— Initial estimate of the topic concentration

`numTopics/4`

(default) | nonnegative scalar

Initial estimate of the topic concentration, specified as the
comma-separated pair consisting of
`'InitialTopicConcentration'`

and a nonnegative
scalar. The function sets the concentration per topic to
`TopicConcentration/NumTopics`

. For more
information, see Latent Dirichlet Allocation.

**Example: **`'InitialTopicConcentration',25`

`TopicOrder`

— Topic Order

`'initial-fit-probability'`

(default) | `'unordered'`

Topic order, specified as one of the following:

`'initial-fit-probability'`

– Sort the topics by the corpus topic probabilities of input document set (the`CorpusTopicProbabilities`

property).`'unordered'`

– Do not sort the topics.

`WordConcentration`

— Word concentration

`1`

(default) | nonnegative scalar

Word concentration, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting
of `'WordConcentration'`

and a nonnegative scalar. The
software sets the Dirichlet prior on the topics (the word probabilities
per topic) to be the symmetric Dirichlet distribution parameter with the
value `WordConcentration/numWords`

, where
`numWords`

is the vocabulary size of the input
documents. For more information, see Latent Dirichlet Allocation.

`DocumentsIn`

— Orientation of documents

`'rows'`

(default) | `'columns'`

Orientation of documents in the word count matrix, specified as the comma-separated pair
consisting of `'DocumentsIn'`

and one of the following:

`'rows'`

– Input is a matrix of word counts with rows corresponding to documents.`'columns'`

– Input is a transposed matrix of word counts with columns corresponding to documents.

This option only applies if you specify the input documents as a matrix of word counts.

**Note**

If you orient your word count matrix so that documents correspond to columns and specify
`'DocumentsIn','columns'`

, then you might experience a significant
reduction in optimization-execution time.

**Batch Solver Options**

`IterationLimit`

— Maximum number of iterations

`100`

(default) | positive integer

Maximum number of iterations, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'IterationLimit'`

and a positive integer.

This option supports batch solvers only (`'cgs'`

,
`'avb'`

, or `'cvb0'`

).

**Example: **`'IterationLimit',200`

**Stochastic Solver Options**

`DataPassLimit`

— Maximum number of passes through data

1 (default) | positive integer

Maximum number of passes through the data, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'DataPassLimit'`

and a positive integer.

If you specify `'DataPassLimit'`

but not `'MiniBatchLimit'`

,
then the default value of `'MiniBatchLimit'`

is ignored. If you specify
both `'DataPassLimit'`

and `'MiniBatchLimit'`

, then
`fitlda`

uses the argument that results in processing the fewest
observations.

This option supports only the stochastic (`'savb'`

)
solver.

**Example: **`'DataPassLimit',2`

`MiniBatchLimit`

— Maximum number of mini-batch passes

positive integer

Maximum number of mini-batch passes, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'MiniBatchLimit'`

and a positive integer.

If you specify `'MiniBatchLimit'`

but not `'DataPassLimit'`

,
then `fitlda`

ignores the default value of
`'DataPassLimit'`

. If you specify both
`'MiniBatchLimit'`

and `'DataPassLimit'`

, then
`fitlda`

uses the argument that results in processing the fewest
observations. The default value is `ceil(numDocuments/MiniBatchSize)`

,
where `numDocuments`

is the number of input documents.

This option supports only the stochastic (`'savb'`

)
solver.

**Example: **`'MiniBatchLimit',200`

`MiniBatchSize`

— Mini-batch size

1000 (default) | positive integer

Mini-batch size, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'MiniBatchLimit'`

and a positive integer. The function processes `MiniBatchSize`

documents in each iteration.

This option supports only the stochastic (`'savb'`

)
solver.

**Example: **`'MiniBatchSize',512`

`LearnRateDecay`

— Learning rate decay

0.5 (default) | positive scalar less than or equal to 1

Learning rate decay, specified as the comma-separated pair
`'LearnRateDecay'`

and a positive scalar less than
or equal to 1.

For mini-batch *t*, the function sets the learning
rate to $$\eta (t)=1/{(1+t)}^{\kappa}$$, where $$\kappa $$ is the learning rate decay.

If `LearnRateDecay`

is close to 1, then the learning
rate decays faster and the model learns mostly from the earlier
mini-batches. If `LearnRateDecay`

is close to 0, then
the learning rate decays slower and the model continues to learn from
more mini-batches. For more information, see Stochastic Solver.

This option supports the stochastic solver only
(`'savb'`

).

**Example: **`'LearnRateDecay',0.75`

**Display Options**

`ValidationData`

— Validation data

`[]`

(default) | `bagOfWords`

object | `bagOfNgrams`

object | sparse matrix of word counts

Validation data to monitor optimization convergence, specified as the comma-separated
pair consisting of `'ValidationData'`

and a `bagOfWords`

object, a `bagOfNgrams`

object, or a sparse matrix of word counts. If the
validation data is a matrix, then the data must have the same orientation and the same
number of words as the input documents.

`ValidationFrequency`

— Frequency of model validation

positive integer

Frequency of model validation in number of iterations, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of `'ValidationFrequency'`

and a positive integer.

The default value depends on the solver used to fit the model. For the stochastic solver, the default value is 10. For the other solvers, the default value is 1.

`Verbose`

— Verbosity level

1 (default) | 0

Verbosity level, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of
`'Verbose'`

and one of the following:

0 – Do not display verbose output.

1 – Display progress information.

**Example: **`'Verbose',0`

## Output Arguments

`mdl`

— Output LDA model

`ldaModel`

object

Output LDA model, returned as an `ldaModel`

object.

## More About

### Latent Dirichlet Allocation

A *latent Dirichlet allocation* (LDA) model is a
document topic model which discovers underlying topics in a collection of documents and
infers word probabilities in topics. LDA models a collection of *D*
documents as topic mixtures $${\theta}_{1},\dots ,{\theta}_{D}$$, over *K* topics characterized by vectors of word
probabilities $${\phi}_{1},\dots ,{\phi}_{K}$$. The model assumes that the topic mixtures $${\theta}_{1},\dots ,{\theta}_{D}$$, and the topics $${\phi}_{1},\dots ,{\phi}_{K}$$ follow a Dirichlet distribution with concentration parameters $$\alpha $$ and $$\beta $$ respectively.

The topic mixtures $${\theta}_{1},\dots ,{\theta}_{D}$$ are probability vectors of length *K*, where
*K* is the number of topics. The entry $${\theta}_{di}$$ is the probability of topic *i* appearing in the
*d*th document. The topic mixtures correspond to the rows of the
`DocumentTopicProbabilities`

property of the `ldaModel`

object.

The topics $${\phi}_{1},\dots ,{\phi}_{K}$$ are probability vectors of length *V*, where
*V* is the number of words in the vocabulary. The entry $${\phi}_{iv}$$ corresponds to the probability of the *v*th word of the
vocabulary appearing in the *i*th topic. The topics $${\phi}_{1},\dots ,{\phi}_{K}$$ correspond to the columns of the `TopicWordProbabilities`

property of the `ldaModel`

object.

Given the topics $${\phi}_{1},\dots ,{\phi}_{K}$$ and Dirichlet prior $$\alpha $$ on the topic mixtures, LDA assumes the following generative process for a document:

Sample a topic mixture $$\theta ~\text{Dirichlet}(\alpha )$$. The random variable $$\theta $$ is a probability vector of length

*K*, where*K*is the number of topics.For each word in the document:

Sample a topic index $$z~\text{Categorical}(\theta )$$. The random variable

*z*is an integer from 1 through*K*, where*K*is the number of topics.Sample a word $$w~\text{Categorical}({\phi}_{z})$$. The random variable

*w*is an integer from 1 through*V*, where*V*is the number of words in the vocabulary, and represents the corresponding word in the vocabulary.

Under this generative process, the joint distribution of a document with words $${w}_{1},\dots ,{w}_{N}$$, with topic mixture $$\theta $$, and with topic indices $${z}_{1},\dots ,{z}_{N}$$ is given by

$$p(\theta ,z,w|\alpha ,\phi )=p(\theta |\alpha ){\displaystyle \prod _{n=1}^{N}p}({z}_{n}|\theta )p({w}_{n}|{z}_{n},\phi ),$$

where *N* is the number of words in the document.
Summing the joint distribution over *z* and then integrating over $$\theta $$ yields the marginal distribution of a document *w*:

$$p(w|\alpha ,\phi )={\displaystyle \underset{\theta}{\int}p(\theta |\alpha ){\displaystyle \prod _{n=1}^{N}{\displaystyle \sum _{{z}_{n}}p({z}_{n}|\theta )p({w}_{n}|{z}_{n},\phi )}}}d\theta .$$

The following diagram illustrates the LDA model as a probabilistic graphical model. Shaded nodes are observed variables, unshaded nodes are latent variables, nodes without outlines are the model parameters. The arrows highlight dependencies between random variables and the plates indicate repeated nodes.

### Dirichlet Distribution

The *Dirichlet distribution* is a continuous
generalization of the multinomial distribution. Given the number of categories $$K\ge 2$$, and concentration parameter $$\alpha $$, where $$\alpha $$ is a vector of positive reals of length *K*, the
probability density function of the Dirichlet distribution is given by

$$p(\theta \mid \alpha )=\frac{1}{B(\alpha )}{\displaystyle \prod}_{i=1}^{K}\text{}{\theta}_{i}^{{\alpha}_{i}-1},$$

where *B* denotes the multivariate Beta function given
by

$$B(\alpha )=\frac{{\displaystyle \prod}_{i=1}^{K}\text{}\Gamma \text{}\text{(}{\alpha}_{i})}{\Gamma \left({\displaystyle \sum}_{i=1}^{K}\text{}{\alpha}_{i}\right)}.$$

A special case of the Dirichlet distribution is the *symmetric Dirichlet
distribution*. The symmetric Dirichlet distribution is characterized by the
concentration parameter $$\alpha $$, where all the elements of $$\alpha $$ are the same.

### Stochastic Solver

The stochastic solver processes documents in mini-batches. It updates the per-topic word probabilities using a weighted sum of the probabilities calculated from each mini-batch, and the probabilities from all previous mini-batches.

For mini-batch *t*, the solver sets the learning rate to $$\eta (t)=1/{(1+t)}^{\kappa}$$, where $$\kappa $$ is the learning rate decay.

The function uses the learning rate decay to update $$\Phi $$, the matrix of word probabilities per topic, by setting

$${\Phi}^{(t)}=(1-\eta (t)){\Phi}^{(t-1)}+\eta (t){\Phi}^{(t*)},$$

where $${\Phi}^{(t*)}$$ is the matrix learned from mini-batch *t*, and $${\Phi}^{(t-1)}$$ is the matrix learned from mini-batches 1 through
*t*-1.

Before learning begins (when *t* = 0), the function initializes
the initial word probabilities per topic $${\Phi}^{(0)}$$ with random values.

## References

[1] Foulds, James, Levi Boyles,
Christopher DuBois, Padhraic Smyth, and Max Welling. "Stochastic collapsed variational
Bayesian inference for latent Dirichlet allocation." In *Proceedings of the
19th ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data
mining*, pp. 446–454. ACM, 2013.

[2] Hoffman, Matthew D., David M.
Blei, Chong Wang, and John Paisley. "Stochastic variational inference." *The
Journal of Machine Learning Research* 14, no. 1 (2013):
1303–1347.

[3] Griffiths, Thomas L., and Mark
Steyvers. "Finding scientific topics." *Proceedings of the National academy of
Sciences* 101, no. suppl 1 (2004): 5228–5235.

[4] Asuncion, Arthur, Max Welling,
Padhraic Smyth, and Yee Whye Teh. "On smoothing and inference for topic models." In
*Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Conference on Uncertainty
in Artificial Intelligence*, pp. 27–34. AUAI Press, 2009.

[5] Teh, Yee W., David Newman, and
Max Welling. "A collapsed variational Bayesian inference algorithm for latent Dirichlet
allocation." In *Advances in neural information processing
systems*, pp. 1353–1360. 2007.

## Version History

**Introduced in R2017b**

### R2018b: `fitlda`

sorts topics

Starting in R2018b, `fitlda`

, by default, sorts the topics in
descending order of the topic probabilities of the input document set. This behavior
makes it easier to find the topics with the highest probabilities.

In previous versions, `fitlda`

does not change the topic order.
To reproduce the behavior, set the `'TopicOrder'`

option to `'unordered'`

.

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