I appreciate everyone's help.
I was able to call the contact number and they got me in touch with the Install Team.
It turns out that the problem was very simple: My computer just needed two environment variables set. After those were set and I restarted the installation program, everything worked as it should.
In case someone reading this has the exact same problem, here are the fixing instructions (keep in mind I'm on a Lenovo laptop with a Windows 10 operating system):
First, he had me do a "start menu"/Cortana search for "Environment Variables".
"Once in the Environment variable menu please use the steps below to set both system environment variables:
- Under System Variables, select New.
- Set the first variable name "JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS" with the value of "-Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=true" (enter these without the quotation marks)
- select New again.
- Set the second variable name "JAVA_OPTIONS" with the value of "-Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=true" (enter these without the quotation marks) and click on OK
- Click OK again on the previous screen and try the installer again.
"NOTE: Once the installation is complete you can remove these environment variables."