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# idproc

Continuous-time process model with identifiable parameters

## Syntax

```sys = idproc(type) sys = idproc(type,Name,Value) ```

## Description

`sys = idproc(type)` creates a continuous-time process model with identifiable parameters. `type` specifies aspects of the model structures, such as the number of poles in the model, whether the model includes an integrator, and whether the model includes a time delay.

`sys = idproc(type,Name,Value)` creates a process model with additional attributes specified by one or more `Name,Value` pair arguments.

## Object Description

An `idproc` model represents a system as a continuous-time process model with identifiable (estimable) coefficients.

A simple SISO process model has a gain, a time constant, and a delay:

`$sys=\frac{{K}_{p}}{1+{T}_{p1}s}{e}^{-{T}_{d}s}.$`

Kp is a proportional gain. Tp1 is the time constant of the real pole, and Td is the transport delay (dead time).

More generally, `idproc` can represent process models with up to three poles and a zero:

`$sys={K}_{p}\frac{1+{T}_{z}s}{\left(1+{T}_{p1}s\right)\left(1+{T}_{p2}s\right)\left(1+{T}_{p3}s\right)}{e}^{-{T}_{d}s}.$`

Two of the poles can be a complex conjugate (underdamped) pair. In that case, the general form of the process model is:

`$sys={K}_{p}\frac{1+{T}_{z}s}{\left(1+2\zeta {T}_{\omega }s+{\left({T}_{\omega }s\right)}^{2}\right)\left(1+{T}_{p3}s\right)}{e}^{-{T}_{d}s}.$`

Tω is the time constant of the complex pair of poles, and ζ is the associated damping constant.

In addition, any `idproc` model can have an integrator. For example, the following is a process model that you can represent with `idproc`:

`$sys={K}_{p}\frac{1}{s\left(1+2\zeta {T}_{\omega }s+{\left({T}_{\omega }s\right)}^{2}\right)}{e}^{-{T}_{d}s}.$`

This model has no zero (Tz = 0). The model has a complex pair of poles. The model also has an integrator, represented by the 1/s term.

For `idproc` models, all the time constants, the delay, the proportional gain, and the damping coefficient can be estimable parameters. The `idproc` model stores the values of these parameters in properties of the model such as `Kp`, `Tp1`, and `Zeta`. (See Properties for more information.)

A MIMO process model contains a SISO process model corresponding to each input-output pair in the system. For `idproc` models, the form of each input-output pair can be independently specified. For example, a two-input, one-output process can have one channel with two poles and no zero, and another channel with a zero, a pole, and an integrator. All the coefficients are independently estimable parameters.

There are two ways to obtain an `idproc` model:

• Estimate the `idproc` model based on output or input-output measurements of a system, using the `procest` command. `procest` estimates the values of the free parameters such as gain, time constants, and time delay. The estimated values are stored as properties of the resulting `idproc` model. For example, the properties `sys.Tz` and `sys.Kp` of an `idproc` model `sys` store the zero time constant and the proportional gain, respectively. (See Properties for more information.) The `Report` property of the resulting model stores information about the estimation, such as handling of initial conditions and options used in estimation.

When you obtain an `idproc` model by estimation, you can extract estimated coefficients and their uncertainties from the model using commands such as `getpar` and `getcov`.

• Create an `idproc` model using the `idproc` command.

You can create an `idproc` model to configure an initial parameterization for estimation of a process model. When you do so, you can specify constraints on the parameters. For example, you can fix the values of some coefficients, or specify minimum or maximum values for the free coefficients. You can then use the configured model as an input argument to `procest` to estimate parameter values with those constraints.

## Examples

collapse all

Create a process model with a pair of complex poles and a time delay. Set the initial value of the model to the following:

`$sys=\frac{0.01}{1+2\left(0.1\right)\left(10\right)s+{\left(10s\right)}^{2}}{e}^{-5s}$`

Create a process model with the specified structure.

`sys = idproc('P2DU')`
```sys = Process model with transfer function: Kp G(s) = --------------------- * exp(-Td*s) 1+2*Zeta*Tw*s+(Tw*s)^2 Kp = NaN Tw = NaN Zeta = NaN Td = NaN Parameterization: {'P2DU'} Number of free coefficients: 4 Use "getpvec", "getcov" for parameters and their uncertainties. Status: Created by direct construction or transformation. Not estimated. ```

The input `'P2DU'` specifies an underdamped pair of poles and a time delay. The display shows that `sys` has the desired structure. The display also shows that the four free parameters, `Kp`, `Tw`, `Zeta`, and `Td` are all initialized to `NaN`.

Set the initial values of all parameters to the desired values.

```sys.Kp = 0.01; sys.Tw = 10; sys.Zeta = 0.1; sys.Td = 5;```

You can use `sys` to specify this parameterization and these initial guesses for process model estimation with `procest`.

Create a one-input, three-output process model, where each channel has two real poles and a zero, but only the first channel has a time delay, and only the first and third channels have an integrator.

```type = {'P2ZDI';'P2Z';'P2ZI'}; sys = idproc(type)```
```sys = Process model with 3 outputs: y_k = Gk(s)u From input 1 to output 1: 1+Tz*s G1(s) = Kp * ------------------- * exp(-Td*s) s(1+Tp1*s)(1+Tp2*s) Kp = NaN Tp1 = NaN Tp2 = NaN Td = NaN Tz = NaN From input 1 to output 2: 1+Tz*s G1(s) = Kp * ------------------ (1+Tp1*s)(1+Tp2*s) Kp = NaN Tp1 = NaN Tp2 = NaN Tz = NaN From input 1 to output 3: 1+Tz*s G1(s) = Kp * ------------------- s(1+Tp1*s)(1+Tp2*s) Kp = NaN Tp1 = NaN Tp2 = NaN Tz = NaN Parameterization: {'P2DIZ'} {'P2Z' } {'P2IZ' } Number of free coefficients: 13 Use "getpvec", "getcov" for parameters and their uncertainties. Status: Created by direct construction or transformation. Not estimated. ```

`idproc` creates a MIMO model where each character vector in the `type` array defines the structure of the corresponding I/O pair. Since `type` is a column vector of character vectors, `sys` is a one-input, three-output model having the specified parameterization structure. `type{k,1}` specifies the structure of the subsystem `sys(k,1)`. All identifiable parameters are initialized to `NaN`.

Create a 3-by-1 array of process models, each containing one output and two input channels.

Specify the structure for each model in the array of process models.

```type1 = {'P1D','P2DZ'}; type2 = {'P0','P3UI'}; type3 = {'P2D','P2DI'}; type = cat(3,type1,type2,type3); size(type)```
```ans = 1×3 1 2 3 ```

Use `type` to create the array.

`sysarr = idproc(type);`

The first two dimensions of the cell array `type` set the output and input dimensions of each model in the array of process models. The remaining dimensions of the cell array set the array dimensions. Thus, `sysarr` is a 3-model array of 2-input, one-output process models.

Select a model from the array.

`sysarr(:,:,2)`
```ans = Process model with 2 inputs: y = G11(s)u1 + G12(s)u2 From input 1 to output 1: G11(s) = Kp Kp = NaN From input 2 to output 1: Kp G12(s) = --------------------------------- s(1+2*Zeta*Tw*s+(Tw*s)^2)(1+Tp3*s) Kp = NaN Tw = NaN Zeta = NaN Tp3 = NaN Parameterization: {'P0'} {'P3IU'} Number of free coefficients: 5 Use "getpvec", "getcov" for parameters and their uncertainties. Status: Created by direct construction or transformation. Not estimated. ```

This two-input, one-output model corresponds to the `type2` entry in the `type` cell array.

## Input Arguments

`type`

Model structure, specified as a character vector or cell array of character vectors.

For SISO models, `type` is a character vector made up of one or more of the following characters that specify aspects of the model structure:

CharactersMeaning
`Pk`A process model with k poles (not including an integrator). k must be 0, 1, 2, or 3.
`Z`The process model includes a zero (Tz ≠ 0). A `type` with `P0` cannot include `Z` (a process model with no poles cannot include a zero).
`D`The process model includes a time delay (deadtime) (Td ≠ 0).
`I`The process model includes an integrator (1/s).
`U`The process model is underdamped. In this case, the process model includes a complex pair of poles

Every `type` character vector must begin with one of `P0`, `P1`, `P2`, or `P3`. All other components are optional. For example:

• `'P1D'` specifies a process model with one pole and a time delay (deadtime) term:

`$sys=\frac{{K}_{p}}{1+{T}_{p1}s}{e}^{-{T}_{d}s}.$`

`Kp`, `Tp1`, and `Td` are the identifiable parameters of this model.

• `'P2U'` creates a process model with a pair of complex poles:

`$sys=\frac{{K}_{p}}{\left(1+2\zeta {T}_{\omega }s+{\left({T}_{\omega }s\right)}^{2}\right)}.$`

`Kp`, `Tw`, and `Zeta` are the identifiable parameters of this model.

• `'P3ZDI'` creates a process model with three poles. All poles are real, because `U` is not included. The model also includes a zero, a time delay, and an integrator:

`$sys={K}_{p}\frac{1+{T}_{z}s}{s\left(1+{T}_{p1}s\right)\left(1+{T}_{p2}s\right)\left(1+{T}_{p3}s\right)}{e}^{-{T}_{d}s}.$`

The identifiable parameters of this model are `Kp`, `Tz`, `Tp1`, `Tp2`, `Tp3`, and `Td`.

The values of all parameters in a particular model structure are initialized to `NaN`. You can change them to finite values by setting the values of the corresponding `idproc` model properties after you create the model. For example, ```sys.Td = 5``` sets the initial value of the time delay of `sys` to 5.

For a MIMO process model with `Ny` outputs and `Nu` inputs, `type` is an `Ny`-by-`Nu` cell array of character vectors specifying the structure of each input/output pair in the model. For example, `type{i,j}` specifies the `type` of the subsystem `sys(i,j)` from the jth input to the yth output.

### Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of `Name,Value` arguments. `Name` is the argument name and `Value` is the corresponding value. `Name` must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as `Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN`.

Use `Name,Value` arguments to specify parameter initial values and additional properties of `idproc` models during model creation. For example, `sys = idproc('p2z','InputName','Voltage','Kp',10,'Tz',0);` creates an `idproc` model with the `InputName` property set to `Voltage`. The command also initializes the parameter `Kp` to a value of 10, and `Tz` to 0.

## Properties

`idproc` object properties include:

`Type`

Model structure, specified as a character vector or cell array of character vectors.

For a SISO model `sys`, the property `sys.Type` contains a character vector specifying the structure of the system. For example, `'P1D'`.

For a MIMO model with `Ny` outputs and `Nu` inputs, `sys.Type` is an `Ny`-by-`Nu` cell array of character vectors specifying the structure of each input/output pair in the model. For example, `type{i,j}` specifies the structure of the subsystem `sys(i,j)` from the jth input to the ith output.

The character vectors are made up of one or more of the following characters that specify aspects of the model structure:

CharactersMeaning
`Pk`A process model with k poles (not including an integrator). k is 0, 1, 2, or 3.
`Z`The process model includes a zero (Tz ≠ 0).
`D`The process model includes a time delay (deadtime) (Td ≠ 0).
`I`The process model includes an integrator (1/s).
`U`The process model is underdamped. In this case, the process model includes a complex pair of poles

If you create an `idproc` model `sys` using the `idproc` command, `sys.Type` contains the model structure that you specify with the `type` input argument.

If you obtain an `idproc` model by identification using `procest`, then `sys.Type` contains the model structures that you specified for that identification.

In general, you cannot change the type of an existing model. However, you can change whether the model contains an integrator using the property `sys.Integration`.

`Kp,Tp1,Tp2,Tp3,Tz,Tw,Zeta,Td`

Values of process model parameters.

If you create an `idproc` model using the `idproc` command, the values of all parameters present in the model structure initialize by default to `NaN`. The values of parameters not present in the model structure are fixed to `0`. For example, if you create a model, `sys`, of type `'P1D'`, then `Kp`, `Tp1`, and `Td` are initialized to `NaN` and are identifiable (free) parameters. All remaining parameters, such as `Tp2` and `Tz`, are inactive in the model. The values of inactive parameters are fixed to zero and cannot be changed.

For a MIMO model with `Ny` outputs and `Nu` inputs, each parameter value is an `Ny`-by-`Nu` cell array of character vectors specifying the corresponding parameter value for each input/output pair in the model. For example, `sys.Kp(i,j)` specifies the `Kp` value of the subsystem `sys(i,j)` from the jth input to the ith output.

For an `idproc` model `sys`, each parameter value property such as `sys.Kp`, `sys.Tp1`, `sys.Tz`, and the others is an alias to the corresponding `Value` entry in the `Structure` property of `sys`. For example, `sys.Tp3` is an alias to the value of the property `sys.Structure.Tp3.Value`.

Default: For each parameter value, `NaN` if the process model structure includes the particular parameter; 0 if the structure does not include the parameter.

`Integration`

Logical value or matrix denoting the presence or absence of an integrator in the transfer function of the process model.

For a SISO model `sys`, ```sys.Integration = true``` if the model contains an integrator.

For a MIMO model, `sys.Integration(i,j) = true` if the transfer function from the jth input to the ith output contains an integrator.

When you create a process model using the `idproc` command, the value of `sys.Integration` is determined by whether the corresponding `type` contains `I`.

`NoiseTF`

Coefficients of the noise transfer function.

`sys.NoiseTF` stores the coefficients of the numerator and the denominator polynomials for the noise transfer function H(s) = N(s)/D(s).

`sys.NoiseTF` is a structure with fields `num` and `den`. Each field is a cell array of Ny row vectors, where Ny is the number of outputs of `sys`. These row vectors specify the coefficients of the noise transfer function numerator and denominator in order of decreasing powers of s.

Typically, the noise transfer function is automatically computed by the estimation function `procest`. You can specify a noise transfer function that `procest` uses as an initial value. For example:

```NoiseNum = {[1 2.2]; [1 0.54]}; NoiseDen = {[1 1.3]; [1 2]}; NoiseTF = struct('num', {NoiseNum}, 'den', {NoiseDen}); sys = idproc({'p2'; 'p1di'}); % 2-output, 1-input process model sys.NoiseTF = NoiseTF;```

Each vector in `sys.NoiseTF.num` and `sys.NoiseTF.den` must be of length 3 or less (second-order in s or less). Each vector must start with 1. The length of a numerator vector must be equal to that of the corresponding denominator vector, so that H(s) is always biproper.

Default: `struct('num',{num2cell(ones(Ny,1))},'den',{num2cell(ones(Ny,1))})`

`Structure`

Information about the estimable parameters of the `idproc` model.

`sys.Structure` includes one entry for each parameter in the model structure of `sys`. For example, if `sys` is of type `'P1D'`, then `sys` includes identifiable parameters `Kp`, `Tp1`, and `Td`. Correspondingly, `sys.Structure.Kp`, `sys.Structure.Tp1`, and `sys.Structure.Td` contain information about each of these parameters, respectively.

Each of these parameter entries in `sys.Structure` contains the following fields:

• `Value` — Parameter values. For example, `sys.Structure.Kp.Value` contains the initial or estimated values of the Kp parameter.

`NaN` represents unknown parameter values.

For SISO models, each parameter value property such as `sys.Kp`, `sys.Tp1`, `sys.Tz`, and the others is an alias to the corresponding `Value` entry in the `Structure` property of `sys`. For example, `sys.Tp3` is an alias to the value of the property `sys.Structure.Tp3.Value`.

For MIMO models, `sys.Kp{i,j}` is an alias to `sys.Structure(i,j).Kp.Value`, and similarly for the other identifiable coefficient values.

• `Minimum` — Minimum value that the parameter can assume during estimation. For example, ```sys.Structure.Kp.Minimum = 1``` constrains the proportional gain to values greater than or equal to 1.

• `Maximum` — Maximum value that the parameter can assume during estimation.

• `Free` — Logical value specifying whether the parameter is a free estimation variable. If you want to fix the value of a parameter during estimation, set the corresponding ```Free = false```. For example, to fix the dead time to 5:

```sys.Td = 5; sys.Structure.Td.Free = false;```
• `Scale` — Scale of the parameter’s value. `Scale` is not used in estimation.

• `Info` — Structure array for storing parameter units and labels. The structure has `Label` and `Unit` fields.

Specify parameter units and labels as character vectors. For example, `'Time'`.

`Structure` also includes a field `Integration` that stores a logical array indicating whether each corresponding process model has an integrator. `sys.Structure.Integration` is an alias to `sys.Integration`.

For a MIMO model with `Ny` outputs and `Nu` input, `Structure` is an `Ny`-by-`Nu` array. The element `Structure(i,j)` contains information corresponding to the process model for the `(i,j)` input-output pair.

`NoiseVariance`

The variance (covariance matrix) of the model innovations e.

An identified model includes a white, Gaussian noise component e(t). `NoiseVariance` is the variance of this noise component. Typically, the model estimation function (such as `procest`) determines this variance.

For SISO models, `NoiseVariance` is a scalar. For MIMO models, `NoiseVariance` is a Ny-by-Ny matrix, where Ny is the number of outputs in the system.

`Report`

Summary report that contains information about the estimation options and results when the process model is obtained using the `procest` estimation command. Use `Report` to query a model for how it was estimated, including its:

• Estimation method

• Estimation options

• Search termination conditions

• Estimation data fit and other quality metrics

The contents of `Report` are irrelevant if the model was created by construction.

```m = idproc('P2DU'); m.Report.OptionsUsed```
```ans = []```

If you obtain the process model using estimation commands, the fields of `Report` contain information on the estimation data, options, and results.

```load iddata2 z2; m = procest(z2,'P2DU'); m.Report.OptionsUsed```
```DisturbanceModel: 'estimate' InitialCondition: 'auto' Focus: 'prediction' EstimateCovariance: 1 Display: 'off' InputOffset: [1x1 param.Continuous] OutputOffset: [] Regularization: [1x1 struct] SearchMethod: 'auto' SearchOptions: [1x1 idoptions.search.identsolver] OutputWeight: [] Advanced: [1x1 struct]```

`Report` is a read-only property.

For more information on this property and how to use it, see the Output Arguments section of the corresponding estimation command reference page and Estimation Report.

`InputDelay`

Input delays. `InputDelay` is a numeric vector specifying a time delay for each input channel. Specify input delays in the time unit stored in the `TimeUnit` property.

For a system with `Nu` inputs, set `InputDelay` to an `Nu`-by-1 vector, where each entry is a numerical value representing the input delay for the corresponding input channel. You can also set `InputDelay` to a scalar value to apply the same delay to all channels.

Default: 0 for all input channels

`OutputDelay`

Output delays.

For identified systems, like `idproc`, `OutputDelay` is fixed to zero.

`Ts`

Sample time. For `idproc`, `Ts` is fixed to zero because all `idproc` models are continuous time.

`TimeUnit`

Units for the time variable, the sample time `Ts`, and any time delays in the model, specified as one of the following values:

• `'nanoseconds'`

• `'microseconds'`

• `'milliseconds'`

• `'seconds'`

• `'minutes'`

• `'hours'`

• `'days'`

• `'weeks'`

• `'months'`

• `'years'`

Changing this property has no effect on other properties, and therefore changes the overall system behavior. Use `chgTimeUnit` (Control System Toolbox) to convert between time units without modifying system behavior.

Default: `'seconds'`

`InputName`

Input channel names, specified as one of the following:

• Character vector — For single-input models, for example, `'controls'`.

• Cell array of character vectors — For multi-input models.

Alternatively, use automatic vector expansion to assign input names for multi-input models. For example, if `sys` is a two-input model, enter:

`sys.InputName = 'controls';`

The input names automatically expand to `{'controls(1)';'controls(2)'}`.

When you estimate a model using an `iddata` object, `data`, the software automatically sets `InputName` to `data.InputName`.

You can use the shorthand notation `u` to refer to the `InputName` property. For example, `sys.u` is equivalent to `sys.InputName`.

Input channel names have several uses, including:

• Identifying channels on model display and plots

• Extracting subsystems of MIMO systems

• Specifying connection points when interconnecting models

Default: `''` for all input channels

`InputUnit`

Input channel units, specified as one of the following:

• Character vector — For single-input models, for example, `'seconds'`.

• Cell array of character vectors — For multi-input models.

Use `InputUnit` to keep track of input signal units. `InputUnit` has no effect on system behavior.

Default: `''` for all input channels

`InputGroup`

Input channel groups. The `InputGroup` property lets you assign the input channels of MIMO systems into groups and refer to each group by name. Specify input groups as a structure. In this structure, field names are the group names, and field values are the input channels belonging to each group. For example:

```sys.InputGroup.controls = [1 2]; sys.InputGroup.noise = [3 5];```

creates input groups named `controls` and `noise` that include input channels 1, 2 and 3, 5, respectively. You can then extract the subsystem from the `controls` inputs to all outputs using:

`sys(:,'controls')`

Default: Struct with no fields

`OutputName`

Output channel names, specified as one of the following:

• Character vector — For single-output models. For example, `'measurements'`.

• Cell array of character vectors — For multi-output models.

Alternatively, use automatic vector expansion to assign output names for multi-output models. For example, if `sys` is a two-output model, enter:

`sys.OutputName = 'measurements';`

The output names automatically expand to `{'measurements(1)';'measurements(2)'}`.

When you estimate a model using an `iddata` object, `data`, the software automatically sets `OutputName` to `data.OutputName`.

You can use the shorthand notation `y` to refer to the `OutputName` property. For example, `sys.y` is equivalent to `sys.OutputName`.

Output channel names have several uses, including:

• Identifying channels on model display and plots

• Extracting subsystems of MIMO systems

• Specifying connection points when interconnecting models

Default: `''` for all output channels

`OutputUnit`

Output channel units, specified as one of the following:

• Character vector — For single-output models. For example, `'seconds'`.

• Cell array of character vectors — For multi-output models.

Use `OutputUnit` to keep track of output signal units. `OutputUnit` has no effect on system behavior.

Default: `''` for all output channels

`OutputGroup`

Output channel groups. The `OutputGroup` property lets you assign the output channels of MIMO systems into groups and refer to each group by name. Specify output groups as a structure. In this structure, field names are the group names, and field values are the output channels belonging to each group. For example:

```sys.OutputGroup.temperature = ; sys.InputGroup.measurement = [3 5];```

creates output groups named `temperature` and `measurement` that include output channels 1, and 3, 5, respectively. You can then extract the subsystem from all inputs to the `measurement` outputs using:

`sys('measurement',:)`

Default: Struct with no fields

`Name`

System name, specified as a character vector. For example, `'system_1'`.

Default: `''`

`Notes`

Any text that you want to associate with the system, stored as a string or a cell array of character vectors. The property stores whichever data type you provide. For instance, if `sys1` and `sys2` are dynamic system models, you can set their `Notes` properties as follows:

```sys1.Notes = "sys1 has a string."; sys2.Notes = 'sys2 has a character vector.'; sys1.Notes sys2.Notes```
```ans = "sys1 has a string." ans = 'sys2 has a character vector.' ```

Default: `[0×1 string]`

`UserData`

Any type of data you want to associate with system, specified as any MATLAB® data type.

Default: `[]`

`SamplingGrid`

Sampling grid for model arrays, specified as a data structure.

For arrays of identified linear (IDLTI) models that are derived by sampling one or more independent variables, this property tracks the variable values associated with each model. This information appears when you display or plot the model array. Use this information to trace results back to the independent variables.

Set the field names of the data structure to the names of the sampling variables. Set the field values to the sampled variable values associated with each model in the array. All sampling variables should be numeric and scalar valued, and all arrays of sampled values should match the dimensions of the model array.

For example, if you collect data at various operating points of a system, you can identify a model for each operating point separately and then stack the results together into a single system array. You can tag the individual models in the array with information regarding the operating point:

```nominal_engine_rpm = [1000 5000 10000]; sys.SamplingGrid = struct('rpm', nominal_engine_rpm)```

where `sys` is an array containing three identified models obtained at rpms 1000, 5000 and 10000, respectively.

For model arrays generated by linearizing a Simulink® model at multiple parameter values or operating points, the software populates `SamplingGrid` automatically with the variable values that correspond to each entry in the array. For example, the Simulink Control Design™ commands `linearize` (Simulink Control Design) and `slLinearizer` (Simulink Control Design) populate `SamplingGrid` in this way.

Default: `[]`

## See Also

Introduced before R2006a

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