MATLAB can run in a headless mode from the command line, where it can take a script to execute. It's been a while since I've done it, but I believe you start it with a -nojvm and a -nodisplay flag, and there might be a few other things. This post outlines a lot of it:
I'd imagine you can draw from a list of the binary locations for each release. From my experience, Simulink should also work this way, being called from headless (which is basically what the parallel toolbox workers do).
If you want to get really crazy, you can even use the "!" character to make system cmdline calls from within a supervisory MATLAB script, and catch everything in a try/catch or pipe problems over to stderr. Who needs a pesky script in bash or powershell!