# iqimbal2coef

Convert I/Q imbalance to compensator coefficient

## Syntax

``C = iqimbal2coef(A,P)``

## Description

example

````C = iqimbal2coef(A,P)` converts an I/Q amplitude and phase imbalance to its equivalent compensator coefficient. ```

## Examples

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Generate coefficients for the I/Q imbalance compensator System object™ using `iqimbal2coef`. The compensator corrects for an I/Q imbalance using the generated coefficients.

Create a raised cosine transmit filter System object.

`txRCosFilt = comm.RaisedCosineTransmitFilter;`

Modulate and filter random 64-ary symbols.

```M= 64; data = randi([0 M-1],100000,1); dataMod = qammod(data,M); txSig = txRCosFilt(dataMod);```

Specify amplitude and phase imbalance.

```ampImb = 2; % dB phImb = 15; % degrees```

Apply the specified I/Q imbalance.

```gainI = 10.^(0.5*ampImb/20); gainQ = 10.^(-0.5*ampImb/20); imbI = real(txSig)*gainI*exp(-0.5i*phImb*pi/180); imbQ = imag(txSig)*gainQ*exp(1i*(pi/2 + 0.5*phImb*pi/180)); rxSig = imbI + imbQ;```

Normalize the power of the received signal.

`rxSig = rxSig/std(rxSig);`

Remove the I/Q imbalance by creating and applying a `comm.IQImbalanceCompensator` object. Set the compensator such that the complex coefficients are made available as an output argument.

```iqComp = comm.IQImbalanceCompensator('CoefficientOutputPort',true); [compSig,coef] = iqComp(rxSig);```

Compare the final compensator coefficient to the coefficient generated by the `iqimbal2coef` function. Observe that there is good agreement.

```idealcoef = iqimbal2coef(ampImb,phImb); [coef(end); idealcoef]```
```ans = 2×1 complex -0.1137 + 0.1296i -0.1126 + 0.1334i ```

## Input Arguments

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Amplitude imbalance in dB, specified as a real-valued row or column vector.

Example: `3`

Example: ```[0; 5]```

Data Types: `double`

Phase imbalance in degrees, specified as a real-valued row or column vector.

Example: `10`

Example: ```[15; 45]```

Data Types: `double`

## Output Arguments

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Coefficient that perfectly compensates for the I/Q imbalance, returned as a complex-valued vector having the same dimensions as `A` and `P`.

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### I/Q Imbalance Compensation

The function `iqimbal2coef` is a supporting function for the `comm.IQImbalanceCompensator` System object™.

Define S and X as 2-by-1 vectors representing the I and Q components of the ideal and I/Q imbalanced signals, respectively.

`$X=K\cdot S$`

where K is a 2-by-2 matrix whose values are determined by the amplitude imbalance, A, and phase imbalance, P. A is expressed in dB and P is expressed in degrees.

The imbalance can be expressed as:

`$\begin{array}{l}{I}_{gain}={10}^{0.5A/20}\\ {Q}_{gain}={10}^{-0.5A/20}\\ {\theta }_{i}=-\left(\frac{P}{2}\right)\left(\frac{\pi }{180}\right)\\ {\theta }_{q}=\frac{\pi }{2}+\left(\frac{P}{2}\right)\left(\frac{\pi }{180}\right)\end{array}$`

Then K has the form:

`$K=\left[\begin{array}{cc}{I}_{gain}\mathrm{cos}\left({\theta }_{i}\right)& {Q}_{gain}\mathrm{cos}\left({\theta }_{q}\right)\\ {I}_{gain}\mathrm{sin}\left({\theta }_{i}\right)& {Q}_{gain}\mathrm{sin}\left({\theta }_{q}\right)\end{array}\right]$`

The vector Y is defined as the I/Q imbalance compensator output.

`$Y=R\cdot X$`

For the compensator to perfectly remove the I/Q imbalance, R must be the matrix inversion of K, namely:

`$R={K}^{-1}$`

Using complex notation, the vector Y can be rewritten as:

`$\begin{array}{c}y={w}_{1}x+{w}_{2}\mathrm{conj}\left(x\right)\\ ={w}_{1}\left(x+\left({w}_{2}}{{w}_{1}}\right)\mathrm{conj}\left(x\right)\right)\end{array}$`

where,

`$\begin{array}{l}\mathrm{Re}\left\{{w}_{1}\right\}=\left({R}_{11}+{R}_{22}\right)/2\\ \mathrm{Im}\left\{{w}_{1}\right\}=\left({R}_{21}-{R}_{12}\right)/2\\ \mathrm{Re}\left\{{w}_{2}\right\}=\left({R}_{11}-{R}_{22}\right)/2\\ \mathrm{Im}\left\{{w}_{2}\right\}=\left({R}_{21}+{R}_{12}\right)/2\end{array}$`

The output of the function is w2/w1. To exactly obtain the original signal, the compensator output needs to be scaled and rotated by the complex number w1.

Note

There are cases for which the output of `iqimbal2coef` is unreliable.

• If the phase imbalance is ±90°, the in-phase and quadrature components will become co-linear; consequently, the I/Q imbalance cannot be compensated.

• If the amplitude imbalance is 0 dB and the phase imbalance is 180°, w1 = 0 and w2 = 1i; therefore, the compensator takes the form of y = 1i*conj(x).

## Version History

Introduced in R2014b