FIR Decimation
Perform polyphase FIR decimation
Libraries:
DSP System Toolbox /
Filtering /
Multirate Filters
DSP System Toolbox HDL Support /
Filtering
Description
The FIR Decimation block performs an efficient polyphase decimation using an integer downsampling factor M along the first dimension.
Conceptually, the FIR decimator (as shown in the schematic) consists of an
antialiasing FIR filter followed by a downsampler. To design an FIR antialiasing
filter, use the designMultirateFIR
function.
The FIR filter filters the data in each channel of the input using a directform FIR filter. The downsampler that follows downsamples each channel of filtered data by taking every Mth sample and discarding the M – 1 samples that follow. M is the value of the decimation factor that you specify. The resulting discretetime signal has a sample rate that is 1/M times the original sample rate.
Note that the actual block algorithm implements a directform FIR polyphase structure, an efficient equivalent of the combined system depicted in the diagram. For more details, see Algorithms.
Under specific conditions, this block also supports SIMD code generation. For details, see Code Generation.
Examples
Ports
Input
In — Data input
vector  matrix
Specify the data input as a vector or a matrix of size PbyQ. The columns in the input signal represent Q independent channels.
The block supports variablesize input signals (frame length changes during simulation)
when you set Input processing to
Columns as channels (frame based)
and
Rate options to Enforce
singlerate processing
. When the block accepts
variablesize input signals, they can be of arbitrary frame length, that
is, the input frame length does not have to be a multiple of the
decimation factor. When you specify fixedsize signals, the frame length
can be arbitrary under certain conditions. For more details, see FrameBased Processing and SampleBased Processing.
This port is unnamed until you set Coefficient source to Input port.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 fixed point
Complex Number Support: Yes
Num — Numerator coefficients
vector
Specify the numerator coefficients of the FIR filter as a vector.
The transfer function H(z) of the FIR filter is given by:
$$H(z)={b}_{0}+{b}_{1}{z}^{1}+\mathrm{...}+{b}_{N}{z}^{N}$$
You can generate the FIR filter coefficient vector, b =
[b_{0},
b_{1}, …,
b_{N}], using one of
the DSP System Toolbox™ filter design functions such as designMultirateFIR
,
firnyquist
, firgr
, or firceqrip
.
To act as an effective antialiasing filter, the coefficients usually
correspond to a lowpass filter with a normalized cutoff frequency no
greater than 1/M, where M is the decimation factor.
To design such a filter, use the designMultirateFIR
function.
Coefficient values obtained through Num are tunable, that is, they can change during simulation, while their properties must remain constant.
The data type of the Num input must match the data type of the In input.
Dependencies
The Num input port appears when you set Coefficient source as Input port.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 fixed point
Complex Number Support: Yes
Output
Out — Decimator output
vector  matrix
Output of the FIR Decimator block, returned as a vector or a matrix.
When you set Rate options to:
Enforce singlerate processing
–– The block maintains the input sample rate and decimates the signal by decreasing the output frame size by a factor of M.The output has an upper bound size of
ceil
(P/M)byQ for an input of size PbyQ.Allow multirate processing
–– The block decimates the signal such that the output sample rate is M times slower than the input sample rate.The output frame size is the same as the input frame size.
For more details, see FrameBased Processing and SampleBased Processing.
This port is unnamed until you set Coefficient source to Input port.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 fixed point
Complex Number Support: Yes
Parameters
Coefficient source — FIR filter coefficient source
Auto (default)  Dialog parameters  Input port  Filter object
Specify the FIR filter coefficient source as one of the following:
Dialog parameters –– Specify the filter coefficients through the FIR filter coefficients parameter in the block dialog box.
Input port –– Specify the filter coefficients through the Num input port.
Filter object –– Specify the filter using a
dsp.FIRDecimator
System object™.Auto –– When you select Auto, the block designs an FIR decimator using the decimation factor that you specify in Decimation factor. The
designMultirateFIR
function designs the filter and returns the coefficients used by the block.For more information on the filter design, see Orfanidis [2].
FIR filter coefficients — Lowpass FIR filter coefficients
designMultirateFIR(1,2)
(default)  vector
Specify the lowpass FIR filter coefficients, in descending powers of
z, as a vector. By default,
designMultirateFIR(1,2)
computes the filter
coefficients.
The transfer function H(z) of the FIR filter is given by:
$$H(z)={b}_{0}+{b}_{1}{z}^{1}+\mathrm{...}+{b}_{N}{z}^{N}$$
You can generate the FIR filter coefficient vector, b =
[b_{0},
b_{1}, …,
b_{N}], using one of the
DSP System Toolbox filter design functions such as designMultirateFIR
, firnyquist
, firgr
, or firceqrip
.
To act as an effective antialiasing filter, the coefficients usually
correspond to a lowpass filter with a normalized cutoff frequency no greater
than 1/M, where M is the decimation factor. To
design such a filter, use the designMultirateFIR
function.
The block internally initializes all filter states to zero.
Dependencies
This parameter appears only when you set the Coefficient source to Dialog parameters.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
Complex Number Support: Yes
Decimation factor — Decimation factor
2
(default)  positive scalar
Specify the integer factor M. The block decreases the sample rate of the input sequence by this factor.
Dependencies
This parameter appears only when you set the Coefficient source to Dialog parameters, Input port, or Auto.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
Filter structure — FIR filter structure
Direct form
(default)  Direct form transposed
Specify the FIR filter structure as either Direct
form
or Direct form
transposed
.
Dependencies
This parameter appears only when you set the Coefficient source to Dialog parameters, Input port, or Auto.
Filter object — Filter object
dsp.FIRDecimator
dsp.FIRDecimator
Specify the name of the multirate filter object that you want the block to
implement. You must specify the filter as a dsp.FIRDecimator
System object.
You can define the System object directly in the block dialog box. Alternatively, you can define the object in a MATLAB^{®} workspace variable and specify the variable in the block dialog box.
For information on creating System objects, see Define Basic System Objects.
Dependencies
This parameter appears only when you set the Coefficient source to Filter object.
Input processing — Method to process input signals
Columns as channels (frame
based)
(default)  Elements as channels (sample based)
Specify how the block should process the input. You can set this parameter to one of the following options:
Columns as channels (frame based)
— When you select this option, the block treats each column of the input as a separate channel.Elements as channels (sample based)
— When you select this option, the block treats each element of the input as a separate channel.
Rate options — Method by which block decimates input
Enforce singlerate
processing
(default)  Allow multirate processing
Specify the method by which the block should decimate the input. You can select one of the following options:
Enforce singlerate processing
— When you select this option, the block maintains the input sample rate and decimates the signal by decreasing the output frame size by a factor of M. To select this option, you must set the Input processing parameter toColumns as channels (frame based)
.When you set the Rate options parameter to
Enforce singlerate processing
, you can use the FIR Decimation block inside triggered subsystems.Allow multirate processing
— When you select this option, the block decimates the signal such that the output sample rate is M times slower than the input sample rate.
Allow arbitrary frame length for fixedsize input signals — Allow arbitrary frame length for fixedsize input signals
off (default)  on
Specify whether fixedsize input signals (whose size does not change during simulation) can have an arbitrary frame length, where the frame length does not have to be a multiple of the decimation factor. The block uses this parameter setting only for fixedsize input signals and ignores this parameter if the input has a variablesize.
When the input signal is a variablesize signal, the signal can have arbitrary frame length, that is, the frame length does not have to be a multiple of the decimation factor.
For fixedsize input signals, if you:
Select the Allow arbitrary frame length for fixedsize input signals parameter, the frame length of the signal does not have to be a multiple of the decimation factor. If the input is not a multiple of the decimation factor, then the output is generally a variablesize signal. Therefore, to support arbitrary input size, the block must also support variablesize operations, which you can enable by selecting the Allow arbitrary frame length for fixedsize input signals parameter.
Clear the Allow arbitrary frame length for fixedsize input signals parameter, the input frame length must be a multiple of the decimation factor.
Dependency
To enable this parameter, set Input processing to
Columns as channels (frame based)
and
Rate options to Enforce
singlerate processing
.
Output buffer initial conditions — Initial conditions
0
(default)  scalar  matrix
When you set the FIR Decimation block to the framebased processing mode, the block can exhibit oneframe latency. In the case of oneframe latency, this parameter specifies the output of the block until the first filtered input sample is available. Specify this parameter as a scalar value to be applied to all signal channels, or as a matrix containing one value for each channel.
Cases of oneframe latency can occur when the input frame size is greater than one, and you set the Input processing and Rate options parameters of the FIR Decimation block as follows:
Input processing set to
Columns as channels (frame based)
Rate options set to
Allow multirate processing
For more information on latency in the FIR Decimation block, see Latency.
Dependencies
This parameter appears only when you configure the block to perform
multirate processing by setting Rate options to
Allow multirate processing
.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 int64
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
 uint64
Complex Number Support: Yes
View Filter Response — View filter response
button
Click on this button to open the Filter Visualization Tool (fvtool
) and display the filter response of the filter
defined in the block dialog box.
Rounding mode — Rounding mode
Floor
(default)  Ceiling
 Convergent
 Nearest
 Round
 Simplest
 Zero
Select the rounding
mode for fixedpoint operations. The default is
Floor
. The filter coefficients do not obey
this parameter and always round to
Nearest
.
Note
The Rounding mode and Saturate on integer overflow settings have no effect on numerical results when all the following conditions exist:
Product output is
Inherit: Inherit via internal rule
Accumulator is
Inherit: Inherit via internal rule
Output is
Inherit: Same as accumulator
With these data type settings, the block is effectively operating in the fullprecision mode.
Saturate on integer overflow — Saturate on integer overflow
off
(default)  on
When you select this parameter, the block saturates the result of its
fixedpoint operation. When you clear this parameter, the block wraps the
result of its fixedpoint operation. For details on
saturate
and wrap
, see overflow
mode for fixedpoint operations.
Note
The Rounding mode and Saturate on integer overflow parameters have no effect on numeric results when all these conditions are met:
Product output data type is
Inherit: Inherit via internal rule
.Accumulator data type is
Inherit: Inherit via internal rule
.
With these data type settings, the block operates in fullprecision mode.
Coefficients Data Type — Coefficients data type
Inherit: Same word length as
input
(default)  fixdt(1,16)
 fixdt(1,16,0)
Specify the coefficients data type. See FixedPoint Data Types and Multiplication Data Types for illustrations depicting the use of the coefficients data type in this block.
You can set this parameter to one of the following:
Inherit: Same word length as input
fixdt(1,16,0)
orfixdt(1,16)
–– Specify a data type object.
Click the Show data type assistant button to display the Data Type Assistant, which helps you set the Coefficients parameter.
See Specify Data Types Using Data Type Assistant (Simulink) for more information.
Dependencies
This parameter appears only when you set Coefficient
source to Dialog parameters
,
Filter object
, or
Auto
.
When Coefficient source is set to
Filter object
,
Coefficients parameter is automatically set to
Same word length as input
.
Coefficients Minimum — Minimum value of filter coefficients
[]
(default)  scalar
Specify the minimum value of the filter coefficients. The default value is
[]
(unspecified). Simulink^{®} software uses this value to perform automatic scaling of
fixedpoint data types.
Dependencies
This parameter appears only when you set Coefficient
source to Dialog parameters
or
Auto
.
Coefficients Maximum — Maximum value of filter coefficients
[]
(default)  scalar
Specify the maximum value of the filter coefficients. The default value is
[]
(unspecified). Simulink software uses this value to perform automatic scaling of
fixedpoint data types.
Dependencies
This parameter appears only when you set Coefficient
source to Dialog parameters
or
Auto
.
Product output Data Type — Product output data type
Inherit: Inherit via internal
rule
(default)  Inherit: Same as input
 fixdt(1,16,0)
Specify the product output data type. See FixedPoint Data Types and Multiplication Data Types for illustrations depicting the use of the product output data type in this block.
You can set this parameter to one of the following:
Inherit: Inherit via internal rule
For more information on this rule, see Inherit via Internal Rule.
Inherit: Same as input
fixdt(1,16,0)
–– Specify a data type object.
Click the Show data type assistant button to display the Data Type Assistant, which helps you set the Product output parameter.
See Specify Data Types Using Data Type Assistant (Simulink) for more information.
Dependencies
When Coefficient source is set to
Filter object
, Product
output parameter is automatically set to Full
precision
.
Accumulator Data Type — Accumulator data type
Inherit: Inherit via internal
rule
(default)  Inherit: Same as input
 Inherit: Same as product output
 fixdt(1,16,0)
Specify the accumulator data type. See FixedPoint Data Types for illustrations depicting the use of the accumulator data type in this block.
You can set this parameter to one of the following:
Inherit: Inherit via internal rule
.For more information on this rule, see Inherit via Internal Rule.
Inherit: Same as input
Inherit: Same as product output
fixdt(1,16,0)
–– Specify a data type object.
Click the Show data type assistant button to display the Data Type Assistant, which helps you set the Accumulator parameter.
See Specify Data Types Using Data Type Assistant (Simulink) for more information.
Dependencies
When Coefficient source is set to
Filter object
,
Accumulator parameter is automatically set to
Full precision
.
Output Data Type — Output data type
Inherit: Same as
accumulator
(default)  Inherit: Same as input
 Inherit: Same as product output
 fixdt(1,16,0)
Specify the output data type. See FixedPoint Data Types for illustrations depicting the use of the output data type in this block.
You can set it to one of the following:
Inherit: Same as accumulator
Inherit: Same as input
Inherit: Same as product output
fixdt(1,16,0)
–– Specify a data type object.
Click the Show data type assistant button to display the Data Type Assistant, which helps you set the Output parameter.
See Control Data Types of Signals (Simulink) for more information.
Dependencies
When Coefficient source is set to
Filter object
,
Output parameter is automatically set to
Same as accumulator
.
Output Minimum — Minimum value of block output
[]
(default)  scalar
Specify the minimum value that the block should output. The default value
is []
(unspecified). Simulink software uses this value to perform:
Simulation range checking (see Specify Signal Ranges (Simulink))
Automatic scaling of fixedpoint data types
Dependencies
This parameter appears only when you set Coefficient
source to Dialog parameters
,
Input port
, or
Auto
.
Output Maximum — Maximum value of block output
[]
(default)  scalar
Specify the maximum value that the block should output. The default value
is []
(unspecified). Simulink software uses this value to perform:
Simulation range checking (see Specify Signal Ranges (Simulink))
Automatic scaling of fixedpoint data types
Dependencies
This parameter appears only when you set Coefficient
source to Dialog parameters
,
Input port
, or
Auto
.
Lock data type settings against changes by the fixedpoint tools — Prevent fixedpoint tools from overriding data types
off
(default)  on
Select this parameter to prevent the fixedpoint tools from overriding the data types you specify in the block dialog box.
Block Characteristics
Data Types 

Direct Feedthrough 

Multidimensional Signals 

VariableSize Signals 

ZeroCrossing Detection 

More About
Polyphase Subfilters
A polyphase implementation of an FIR decimator splits the lowpass FIR filter impulse response into M different subfilters, where M is the downsampling or decimation factor. For more details on the polyphase implementation, see Algorithms.
Let h(n) denote the FIR filter impulse response of length N+1 and x(n) the input signal. Decimating the filter output by a factor of M is equivalent to the downsampled convolution:
$$y(n)={\displaystyle \sum _{l=0}^{N}h}(l)x(nMl)$$
The key to the efficiency of polyphase filtering is that specific input values are only multiplied by select values of the impulse response in the downsampled convolution. For example, letting M = 2, the input values x(0),x(2),x(4), ... are combined only with the filter coefficients h(0),h(2),h(4),..., and the input values x(1),x(3),x(5), ... are combined only with the filter coefficients h(1),h(3),h(5),.... By splitting the filter coefficients into two polyphase subfilters, no unnecessary computations are performed in the convolution. The outputs of the convolutions with the polyphase subfilters are interleaved and summed to yield the filter output.
The following code demonstrates how to construct the two polyphase subfilters for the default order 35 filter.
M = 2; Num = fir1(35,0.4); FiltLength = length(Num); Num = flipud(Num(:)); if (rem(FiltLength, M) ~= 0) nzeros = M  rem(FiltLength, M); Num = [zeros(nzeros,1); Num]; % Appending zeros end len = length(Num); nrows = len / M; PolyphaseFilt = flipud(reshape(Num, M, nrows).');
The columns of PolyphaseFilt
are subfilters containing the two phases of the filter in Num
. For a general downsampling factor of M, there are M phases and therefore M subfilters.
FrameBased Processing
When you set the Input processing parameter to Columns as
channels (frame based)
, the block resamples each column of the
input over time. In this mode, the block can perform either singlerate or multirate
processing. You can use the Rate options parameter to specify
how the block resamples the input.
When you set the Rate options parameter to
Enforce singlerate processing
, the input and output of the block have the same sample rate. To decimate the output while maintaining the input sample rate, the block resamples the data in each column of the input such that the frame length of the output has an upper bound size ofceil
(P/M), where P is the input frame length and M is the decimation factor specified in the Decimation factor parameter.In this mode, if you input a fixedsize signal (frame length does not change during simulation) and select the Allow arbitrary frame length for fixedsize input signals parameter, the input frame length can be arbitrary and does not have to be a multiple of the decimation factor. If you clear the Allow arbitrary frame length for fixedsize input signals parameter, the input frame length must be a multiple of the decimation factor.
In this mode, if you input a variablesize signal (frame length changes during simulation), the Allow arbitrary frame length for fixedsize input signals appears on the block dialog box but does not have any impact on the input frame length. You can input a variablesize signal of any frame length even if you do not select the Allow arbitrary frame length for fixedsize input signals parameter.
This table summarizes the support for arbitrary input frame length when you set Input processing to
Columns as channels (frame based)
and Rate options toEnforce singlerate processing
.Input Signal Block Support for this Signal Support for Arbitrary Input Frame Length Input Size Output Size Fixedsize input signal Yes When you select Allow arbitrary frame length for fixedsize input signals PbyQ Upper bound size of ceil
(P/M)byQVariablesize input signal Yes Always PbyQ Upper bound size of ceil
(P/M)byQFor an example that shows singlerate FIR decimation, see FIR Decimation Using SingleRate Processing.
When you set the Rate options parameter to
Allow multirate processing
, the input and output of the FIR Decimation block are of the same size, but the sample rate of the output is M times slower than that of the input. In this mode, the block treats a PbyQ matrix input as Q independent channels. The block decimates each column of the input over time by keeping the frame size constant, and making the output frame period (T_{fo}) M times longer than the input frame period (T_{fo} = M*T_{fi}).In this mode, the block accepts only fixedsize signals and these signals can have arbitrary frame length.
This table summarizes the support for arbitrary input frame length when you set Input processing to
Columns as channels (frame based)
and Rate options toAllow multirate processing
.Input Signal Block Support for this Signal Support for Arbitrary Input Frame Length Input Size Output Size Fixedsize input signal Yes Always PbyQ PbyQ Variablesize input signal No Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable See FIR Decimation Using Multirate FrameBased Processing for an example that uses the FIR Decimation block in this mode.
SampleBased Processing
When you set the Input processing parameter to
Elements as channels (sample based)
, the block treats
a PbyQ matrix input as
P*Q independent channels, and decimates
each channel over time. The output sample period
(T_{so}) is M
times longer than the input sample period
(T_{so} =
M*T_{si}), and the input and output
sizes are identical.
In this mode, the block accepts only fixedsize signals and these signals can have an arbitrary frame length.
This table summarizes the support for arbitrary input frame length when you set
Input processing to Elements as channels
(sample based)
. Rate options is automatically
set to Allow multirate processing
.
Input Signal  Block Support for this Signal  Support for Arbitrary Input Frame Length  Input Size  Output Size 

Fixedsize input signal  Yes  Always  PbyQ  PbyQ 
Variablesize input signal  No  Not applicable  Not applicable  Not applicable 
Latency
When you use the FIR Decimation block in the samplebased processing mode, the block always has zerotasking latency. Zerotasking latency means that the block propagates the first filtered input sample (received at time t= 0) as the first output sample. That first output sample is then followed by filtered input samples M+1, 2M+1, and so on.
When you use the FIR Decimation block in the framebased processing mode with a frame size greater than one, the block may exhibit oneframe latency. Cases of oneframe latency can occur when the input frame size is greater than one and you set the Input processing and Rate options parameters of the FIR Decimation block as follows:
Input processing =
Columns as channels (frame based)
Rate options =
Allow multirate processing
In cases of oneframe latency, you can define the value of the first P
output rows by setting the Output buffer initial
conditions parameter. The default value of the Output
buffer initial conditions parameter is 0
.
However, you can enter a matrix containing one value for each channel of the input,
or a scalar value to be applied to all channels. The first filtered input sample
(first filtered row of the input matrix) appears in the output as sample
P+1. That sample is then followed by filtered input samples
M+1, 2M+1, and so on.
Note
For more information on latency and the Simulink tasking modes, see Excess Algorithmic Delay (Tasking Latency) and TimeBased Scheduling and Code Generation (Simulink Coder).
FixedPoint Data Types
The following diagram shows the data types used within the FIR Decimation block for fixedpoint signals.
This diagram shows that data is stored in the input buffer with the same data type and scaling as the input. The block stores filtered data and any initial conditions in the output buffer using the output data type and scaling that you set in the block dialog box.
When at least one of the inputs to the multiplier is real, the output of the multiplier is in the product output data type. When both inputs to the multiplier are complex, the result of the multiplication is in the accumulator data type. For details on the complex multiplication performed by this block, see Multiplication Data Types.
Note
When the block input is fixed point, all internal data types are signed fixedpoint values.
Algorithms
The FIR decimation filter is implemented efficiently using a polyphase structure. For more details on polyphase filters, see Polyphase Subfilters.
To derive the polyphase structure, start with the transfer function of the FIR filter:
$$H(z)={b}_{0}+{b}_{1}{z}^{1}+\mathrm{...}+{b}_{N}{z}^{N}$$
N+1 is the length of the FIR filter.
You can rearrange this equation as follows:
$$H(z)=\begin{array}{c}\left({b}_{0}+{b}_{M}{z}^{M}+{b}_{2M}{z}^{2M}+\mathrm{..}+{b}_{NM+1}{z}^{(NM+1)}\right)+\\ {z}^{1}\left({b}_{1}+{b}_{M+1}{z}^{M}+{b}_{2M+1}{z}^{2M}+\mathrm{..}+{b}_{NM+2}{z}^{(NM+1)}\right)+\\ \begin{array}{c}\vdots \\ {z}^{(M1)}\left({b}_{M1}+{b}_{2M1}{z}^{M}+{b}_{3M1}{z}^{2M}+\mathrm{..}+{b}_{N}{z}^{(NM+1)}\right)\end{array}\end{array}$$
M is the number of polyphase components, and its value equals the decimation factor that you specify.
You can write this equation as:
$$H(z)={E}_{0}({z}^{M})+{z}^{1}{E}_{1}({z}^{M})+\mathrm{...}+{z}^{(M1)}{E}_{M1}({z}^{M})$$
E_{0}(z^{M}), E_{1}(z^{M}), ..., E_{M1}(z^{M}) are the polyphase components of the FIR filter H(z).
Conceptually, the FIR decimation filter contains a lowpass FIR filter followed by a downsampler.
Replace H(z) with its polyphase representation.
Here is the multirate noble identity for decimation.
Applying the noble identity for decimation moves the downsampling operation to before the filtering operation. This move enables you to filter the signal at a lower rate.
You can replace the delays and the decimation factor at the input with a commutator switch. The switch starts on the first branch 0 and moves in the counterclockwise direction as shown in this diagram. The accumulator at the output receives the processed input samples from each branch of the polyphase structure and accumulates these processed samples until the switch goes to branch 0. When the switch goes to branch 0, the accumulator outputs the accumulated value.
When the first input sample is delivered, the switch feeds this input to the branch 0 and the decimator computes the first output value. As more input samples come in, the switch moves in the counter clockwise direction through branches M−1, M−2, and all the way up to branch 0, delivering one sample at a time to each branch. When the switch comes to branch 0, the decimator outputs the next set of output values. This process continues as data keeps coming in. Every time the switch comes to the branch 0, the decimator outputs y[m]. The decimator effectively outputs one sample for every M samples it receives. Hence the sample rate at the output of the FIR decimation filter is fs/M.
References
[1] Fliege, N. J. Multirate Digital Signal Processing: Multirate Systems, Filter Banks, Wavelets. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, 1994.
[2] Orfanidis, Sophocles J. Introduction to Signal Processing. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1996.
Extended Capabilities
C/C++ Code Generation
Generate C and C++ code using Simulink® Coder™.
Generated code relies on the memcpy
or
memset
function (string.h
) under certain
conditions.
Generate SIMD code using Intel^{®} AVX2 code replacement library
Note
Requires Embedded Coder^{®} license
The FIR Decimation block supports SIMD code generation using Intel AVX2 code replacement library under these conditions:
Filter structure is set to
Direct form
.Input processing is set to
Columns as channels (frame based)
.Rate options is set to
Enforce singlerate processing
.Clear the Allow arbitrary frame length for fixedsize input signals parameter.
Input signal is realvalued with real filter coefficients.
Input signal is complexvalued with real or complex filter coefficients.
Input signal has a data type of
single
ordouble
.
To generate SIMD code from this block using this workflow, see Use Intel AVX2 Code Replacement Library to Generate SIMD Code from Simulink Blocks.
Generate SIMD code by leveraging target hardware instruction set extensions (since R2023a)
Note
Requires Simulink Coder™ or Embedded Coder license
You can generate SIMD code for the FIR Decimation block on all Intel platforms and ARM^{®} Cortex^{®}A processors by using the model configuration parameter Leverage target hardware instruction set extensions under these conditions:
You set Filter structure to
Direct form
for the FIR Decimation blockYou set Input processing to
Columns as channels (frame based)
Input signal is realvalued with real filter coefficients
Input signal is complexvalued with real or complex filter coefficients.
Data type of the input signal is
single
(ARM CortexA processors)Data type of the input signal is
single
ordouble
(Intel platforms)
In addition, configure your model appropriately. In the Modeling tab of the Simulink model window, click Model Settings and configure these parameters under Code Generation.
In the Optimization pane:
Provide a specific instruction set in the Leverage target hardware instruction set extensions parameter.
Select the Optimize reductions parameter.
Under Optimization levels, set Level to
Maximum
and Priority toMaximize execution speed
.
In the Interface pane, under Software environment, clear nonfinite numbers.
To generate SIMD code from this block using this workflow, see Use Target Hardware Instruction Set Extensions to Generate SIMD Code from Simulink Blocks for Intel Platforms and Use Target Hardware Instruction Set Extensions to Generate SIMD Code from Simulink Blocks for ARM CortexA Processors.
For computationally intensive operations on supported blocks, SIMD intrinsics can significantly improve the performance of the generated code on Intel platforms. For more details, see Optimize Code for Reduction Operations by Using SIMD (Simulink Coder).
For more information on SIMD code generation in DSP System Toolbox, see SIMD Code Generation.
HDL Code Generation
Generate VHDL, Verilog and SystemVerilog code for FPGA and ASIC designs using HDL Coder™.
Note
For a FIR decimation filter with hardwarefriendly control signals and simulation of HDL latency in Simulink, or for complex data with complex coefficients, use the FIR Decimator (DSP HDL Toolbox) block instead of this block.
HDL Coder™ provides additional configuration options that affect HDL implementation and synthesized logic.
HDL Coder supports Coefficient source options Dialog parameters, Filter object, or Auto. Programmable coefficients are not supported.
HDL Coder supports the use of vector inputs to FIR Decimation blocks, where each element of the vector represents a sample in time. You can use an input vector of up to 512 samples. The framebased implementation supports fixedpoint input and output data types, and uses fullprecision internal data types. The output is a column vector of reduced size, corresponding to your decimation factor. You can use real input signals with real coefficients, complex input signals with real coefficients, or real input signals with complex coefficients.
Connect a column vector signal to the FIR Decimation block input port.
Specify Input processing as
Columns as channels (frame based)
.Set Rate options to
Enforce singlerate processing
.Rightclick the block and open HDL Code > HDL Block Properties. Set the Architecture to
Frame Based
. The block implements a parallel HDL architecture. See FrameBased Architecture (HDL Coder).
To reduce area or increase speed, the FIR Decimator block supports blocklevel optimizations.
Rightclick on the block or the subsystem to open the corresponding HDL Properties dialog box and set optimization properties.
Serial Architectures  To use blocklevel optimizations to reduce hardware
resources, set Architecture to
When you specify
SerialPartition for a FIR
Decimator block, set Filter structure
to 
Distributed Arithmetic  To minimize multipliers by replacing them with LUTs and shift registers, use a distributed arithmetic (DA) filter implementation. See Distributed Arithmetic for HDL Filters (HDL Coder). When you select the 
Pipelining  To improve clock speed, use
AddPipelineRegisters to use a
pipelined adder tree rather than the default linear adder.
This option is supported for 
AddPipelineRegisters  Insert a pipeline register between stages of computation in a filter. See also AddPipelineRegisters (HDL Coder). 
CoeffMultipliers  Specify the use of canonical signed digit (CSD) optimization to decrease filter area
by replacing coefficient multipliers with shiftandadd logic. When you choose a fully
parallel filter implementation, you can set CoeffMultipliers to

DALUTPartition  Specify distributed arithmetic partialproduct LUT partitions as a vector of the sizes of each partition. The sum of all vector elements must be equal to the filter length. The maximum size for a partition is 12 taps. Set DALUTPartition to a scalar value equal to the filter length to generate DA code without LUT partitions. See also DALUTPartition (HDL Coder). 
DARadix  Specify how many distributed arithmetic bit sums are computed
in parallel. A DA radix of 8 ( 
MultiplierInputPipeline  Specify the number of pipeline stages to add at filter multiplier inputs. See also MultiplierInputPipeline (HDL Coder). 
MultiplierOutputPipeline  Specify the number of pipeline stages to add at filter multiplier outputs. See also MultiplierOutputPipeline (HDL Coder). 
SerialPartition  Specify partitions for partly serial or cascadeserial filter implementations as a vector of the lengths of each partition. For a fully serial implementation, set this parameter to the length of the filter. See also SerialPartition (HDL Coder). 
ConstrainedOutputPipeline  Number of registers to place at
the outputs by moving existing delays within your design. Distributed
pipelining does not redistribute these registers. The default is

InputPipeline  Number of input pipeline stages
to insert in the generated code. Distributed pipelining and constrained
output pipelining can move these registers. The default is

OutputPipeline  Number of output pipeline stages
to insert in the generated code. Distributed pipelining and constrained
output pipelining can move these registers. The default is

You must set Initial conditions to zero. HDL code generation is not supported for nonzero initial states.
When you select Dialog parameters, the following fixedpoint options are not supported for HDL code generation:
Slope and Bias scaling
CoeffMultipliers options are supported only when using a fully parallel architecture. When you select a serial architecture, CoeffMultipliers is hidden from the HDL Block Properties dialog box.
Programmable coefficients are not supported.
Framebased input filters are not supported for:
Resettable and enabled subsystems
Complex input signals with complex coefficients. You can use either complex input signals and real coefficients, or complex coefficients and real input signals.
Sharing and streaming optimizations
FixedPoint Conversion
Design and simulate fixedpoint systems using FixedPoint Designer™.
Version History
Introduced before R2006aR2024a: Generate SIMD code for ARM CortexA processors
In R2024a, if you have Embedded Coder, you can generate SIMD code for the FIR Decimation block for ARM CortexA processors by using the model configuration parameter Leverage target hardware instruction set extensions.
R2023b: Generate SIMD Code for Complex Signals
In R2023b, if you have Embedded Coder, you can generate SIMD code for the FIR Decimation block when the input signal is complexvalued by using the model configuration parameter Leverage target hardware instruction set extensions.
R2023a: Generate SIMD code for FIR Decimation block on all Intel platforms
In R2023a, if you have Embedded Coder, you can generate SIMD code for the FIR Decimation block on all Intel platforms by using the model configuration parameter Leverage target hardware instruction set extensions. Previously, you had to use a code replacement library to generate SIMD code. For more details, see Code Generation.
R2022b: Support for arbitrary input frame length
Starting in R2022b, this block supports input signals with arbitrary frame lengths when the:
Input signal is a fixedsize signal (frame length does not change during simulation) and the block allows for multirate processing
Input signal is a fixedsize signal, the block enforces singlerate processing, and you select the Allow arbitrary frame length for fixedsize input signals parameter
Input signal is a variablesize signal (frame length changes during simulation)
When this block supports an arbitrary frame length input signal, the input frame length does not have to be a multiple of the decimation factor.
For more details, see FrameBased Processing and SampleBased Processing.
See Also
Functions
firgr
firceqrip
firnyquist
Objects
Blocks
 Variable FIR Decimation  FIR Interpolation  FIR Rate Conversion  FIR Halfband Interpolator  FIR Halfband Decimator  IIR Halfband Interpolator  IIR Halfband Decimator  CIC Compensation Interpolator  CIC Compensation Decimator  Downsample  CIC Decimation  Digital UpConverter  Digital DownConverter
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